Would You Like A Nucleoside With That?

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Nucleosides are made of nitrogenous bases attached to a RNA or DNA sugar without any phosphate groups. (Probably could be reckoned to a bee without its sting)

Nucleoside- Sugar +Base

05_26NucleicAcidComponent nucleoside

Examples of Nucleosides- Cytidine, Uridine, Adenosine, Inosine, Thymidine.

Nucleosides:

– Are made up of just one nitrogenous base attached to a sugar with no phosphate groups

– Through hydrolysis of nucleotides the phosphate group is removed and the remaining structure is the nucleoside.

An example of a nucleoside is our very energy currency molecule ATP, you know, that energy currency we’ve mentioned?  ATP is composed of adenine, a ribose sugar and a triphosphate. So if it has three phosphates how does this qualify as a nucleoside? ATP is actually a nucleotide, however the portion of the molecule minus the phosphates (adenine+ribose sugar) is what’s considered a nucleoside.

 

Functions…

·         DNA and RNA precursors.

·         Biosynthetic intermediates, which include glycogen, UDP-glucose, phosphoglycerides, CDP- and diacylglycerol(Suarez 2007)

·   Nucleotide triphosphates (yes we’re referring to good old ATP), energy coinage ;).

·        Adenine nucleotides are substituents of the coenzymes, NAD(P)+, FAD, and CoA.

· They function as metabolic regulators:  (a) hormonal actions are mediated by c-AMP; (b) The activation of phosphorylase and deactivation of glycogen synthase by ATP-dependent protein phosphorylation;

Allosteric regulators – the deactivation of glycogen synthase and activation of by AMP activated by ATP respectively (Joseph 2009)

 

In case you’ve been wondering, thus far, there are just two types of nucleic acids found in the cell:

In the nucleus- DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

In the cytoplasm- RNA (Ribonucleic acid)

 

DNA has the genetic code to make RNA.

RNA converts the primary sequence of amino acid code to one for more complex proteins.
DNA and RNA structure, an extremely brief overview:

Difference_DNA_RNA-EN.svg

DNA

-double stranded, hence 2 polynucleotides along each other

-wound together to form double helix

-formed via Hydrogen bonding between bases, forming base-pairs.

-base pairs are specific where C binds to G,A binds to T known as complementary base pairs.

 

Main structure of RNA

-has ribose sugar

-has the base uracil

-single stranded

-shorter than DNA

 

 

References:

Diffen.com. “Nucleoside vs Nucleotide – Difference and Comparison | Diffen.” 2014. http://www.diffen.com/difference/Nucleoside_vs_Nucleotide (accessed 30 Mar 2014).

Mrothery.co.uk. “DNA_Notes.” 2014. http://www.mrothery.co.uk/genetics/dnanotes.htm (accessed 30 Mar 2014).

Uh.edu. “BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF NUCLEOTIDES.” 2014. http://www.uh.edu/dtu/19-Nuc%20Mata-1-08.htm (accessed 30 Mar 2014).

 

Images taken from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleic_acid_analogue

http://bio1151.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch05/polynucleotide.html

 

Contributors: Le Frenchie, India, Roi (editor)

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