Game of Thrones is back!!!
I digress, as much as we’d love to, this isn’t about the fate of Westeros.
We’re gonna go back… wayyy back (not really), just to last week’s post : ). So, as you prolly already know, two main examples of nucleic acids that are used in genetic coding as well as in reproduction (the exchange of genetic material) and protein synthesis are DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic acid). Nucleic acids are defined as polymers (made up of monomers called nucleotides) that are used to for the genetic information of organisms
– In terms of the structure of a nucleotide it consists of 3 molecules linked together; a 5 carbon sugar, an organic base and phosphoric acid.
-The organic bases that make up the nucleotide strands of DNA are Adenine, Guanine (both purines) and Cytosine, thymine (both pyrimadines). RNA nucleotide stand is made up of these bases except thymine in which case, uracil is instead used as a base. The sequence of along the chain of nucleic acids differs from person-to-person and between species.
It’s within this sequence that information controlling the organism’s development (the genetic information) is contain… Yep, we’re just gonna come right out and say this… Your very lives depend upon it!
A DNA molecule consists of two anti-parallel polynucleotide chains twisted and forming into a double helix, both polynucleotide chains are crossed and linked via intervals that correspond to the nucleotides.
For every complete turn of the DNA helix, there are 10 nucleotides. Basicaly, it’s like a twisted ladder with two uprights that consists of chains made up of alternating sugar and phosphate groups. The rungs in this case act as pairs of bases that stick inwards towards each other.
These bases have the following base pair configurations of A to T and C to G.
-RNA is a single stranded molecule that can exist in 3 forms: as mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transferred RNA) and rRNA (ribosomal RNA). It controls the synthesis of proteins whilst DNA carries the genetic information.
– DNA occurs in the nucleus only, RNA occurs in the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Did you know that 99.9% of our DNA sequence is the same as that of other human beings! See! We’re all not that different after all! One love, Peace 😀
Interestingly enough, it’s been postulated that humans also share anywhere between 94-99% of DNA with chimps…
Like we said last week, Nucleotides are the molecules which are the main components that composed RNA and DNA. They are Imperative for survival since they are used in enzyme reactions, production of chemical energy and cell signaling (Mason 2007). If you haven’t read that post then now’s your chance.
DNA: Its nucleotide contains the sugar deoxyribose and one of the bases: cytosine, adenine, guanine, or thymine.
RNA: Its bases include: cytosine, adenine, uracil and guanine.
Nucleic acids are the central molecules of life, encoding all the genetic information necessary for cellular metabolism and replication. Nucleic acids are long, thread like polymers whose monomers are linear array of nucleotides (Blackburn 2006).
Around 1870, Johann Friedrich Miescher first isolated DNA. After finding a weakly acidic substance in human white blood cells’ nuclei he dubbed it “nuclein” which was later separated into protein and nucleic acid components.
Nucleic acids are major components of chromosomes
Unlike proteins, nucleic acids don’t contain sulphur.
Nucleic acids found within a chromosome are called deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) while those with a ribose sugar as backbones are called ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Single-ringed bases are called pyrimidines and their two-ringed counterparts are called purines.
cytidine, guanosine and uridine are N-glycosides of ribose that make up RNA.
Bacteria and other single-celled organisms don’t have well defined nuclei, but their only chromosome is associated with certain proteins in a “nucleoid”.
Bacterial DNA generally is of a makeup and structure similar to that of more complex multicellular organisms.
About.com Chemistry. “Nucleic Acid Facts – Quick Facts about Nucleic Acids.” n.d.. http://chemistry.about.com/od/lecturenoteslab1/a/Nucleic-Acid-Facts.htm (accessed 6 Apr 2014).
Academic.pgcc.edu. “structure.” n.d.. http://academic.pgcc.edu/~kroberts/Lecture/Chapter%207/structure.html (accessed 5 Apr 2014).
Blackburn, G Michael, et al. Nucleic Acids in Chemistry and Biology. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2006.
Unknown. “Jennifer Lawrence reaction gifs.” Digital image, 2013. http://pandawhale.com/post/6493/jennifer-lawrence-reaction-gifs (accessed 5 Apr 2014).
Www2.chemistry.msu.edu. “Nucleic Acids.” n.d.. https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/nucacids.htm (accessed 5 April 2014).
Contributors: Thalia, Chris, Roi (editor)